By Aarsh Bhardwaj
Abstract: This research paper will provide some facts that how we can connect rhythm and poetry with literature under this research paper following section have been covered 1. Technical aspects of rhythmic poetry an introduction 2. Types of rhythmic poetry 3. Phonetics and rhythmic poetry 4. Semantics and rhythmic poetry 5. Effects of globalization on rhythmic poetry 6. Types of rhymes used to make different types and 7. Rhythmic poetry and literary theories like structuralism, feminism, post colonialism and Marxism.
In this research work I will discuss about the technical aspects of Rhythmic poetry and why it should be considered as a part of literature. Before writing any conclusion, it is important to understand what is rhythmic poetry, what is the use of Phonetics in rhythmic poetry, what is the use of semantics in rhythmic poetry, what is the use of various literary theories like Feminism, Post Colonialism, Structuralism,and Marxism.
Let us start with the first question:
What is rhythmic poetry?
Rhythmic poetry is a type of poetry which is performed orally and delivered in rhythm.While writing the rhythmic poetry it is important to count meters and the poet must have the skillto break the syllables because in rhythmic poetry the technicalities revolve around meter, adjustment of rhymes and creative use of syllables because we cannot use long sentences in the rhythmic poetry.If we use long sentences in the rhythmic poetry, then we will not be able to cope up with the rhythm.(NOTE: -There is a difference in composing lyrical poem and a rhythmic poem).
As compared to any other poetry (ref: -sonnet, elegy and etc.) rhythmic poetry hasdifferent types of rhyming structure, Rhythmic poetry has to be divided into three parts, 1stVerse,then chorus and then 2nd verse. Each verse should then be divided into maximum of sixteen lines and these lines should be further divided into 4 lines (for example: – 1st stanza =4lines, 2nd stanza= 4lines, 3rd stanza=4lines and 4th stanza =4 lines) this makes 1st verse of sixteen lines and chorus should be composed of two lines and repeated 4 times at the time of delivery.
Rhyming scheme that is to be used in the poetry is (a, a, a, a) and in the second stanza rhyming scheme shouldchanged into (b, b, b, b). This is how rhythmic poetry is written. (NOTE: – In modern times, rhythmic poetry is also known as rapthat stands for rhythm and poetry or rhythmic poetry)
There are four types of rhythmic poetry,1. Protest poetry2. Story telling3. Aggressivetype and 4. Lo-fi.
This paper aims to explain these different types of rhythmic poetry in detail. Now, let us talk about the origin of rhythmic poetry. The culture of rhythmic poetry began in America. Majorly, it started during the development of America at a time when Africans were being used as labour/ slaves by Europeans. African citizens and labours used this form of art to express their feelings against racism.
How Rhythmic Poetry Came into Existence
Under this section, I will discuss in detail from where and how Rhythmic poetry came into existence. In the introductory section, I have already mentioned that rhythmic poetry beganin America. It is not hidden from anyone that how Europeans treated Africans during the deve-lopement of America. Europeans used large ships to bring African slaves from Africa to America. Those ships were divided into three decks, 1st deck for men, 2nd deck for children and the last deck for women. African men living on those decks used to deliver some lines in the rhythm which didn’t appear to be a song but a poetry which was delivered in the rhyme and the themes of those poems were imbued with aggression.They used to speak against racism and all the misfortunes happened with them and from there the term rhythmic poetry evolved with a new genre called protest rhythmic poetry as it was performed underthe decks.So, this culture became more of an underground phenomenon in America.The rhythmic poets used to find and form their own groups and hence this art was not revealed in front of the common people.If anyone wanted to be the part of these groups then that person should be a rhythmic poet first.
This poet was also known as men’s poet which means that no women were allowed to be the part of that culture. On the same time when rhythmic poetry was on rise, a new genre called lo-fi rhythmic poetry came into existence,this was the mourning poetry or love poetry. The People selected as slaves were not allowed to stay with their family and during long travelling some of the slaves died as well, so in the grief of separation from their family in grief of losing their brothers, they used to sing lo-fi rhythmic poetry. The difference between the two Aggressive type and lo-fi is analyzed by the difference in the selection of words.In aggressive type rhythmic poetry, the words used are more motivated and it shows the strong side of a black while on the other hand, lo-fi type rhythmic poetry has soft and depressed approach towards the words. This is how rhythmic poetry came into existence.
After 1950s, rhythmic poetry was started to be considered as a part of music but in my opinion though it is a part of music,it should be considered as an inseparable part of literature because of the following reasons, not everyone listens to rhythmic poetry but many people love to read and interpret through reading, Rhythmic poetry also contains some of the literary devices, literature technicalities and rules of linguistics (preferably phonetics) etc. Rhythmic poetry also connects with various kind of literary theories and in the next section, I will discuss about the technical aspects of rhythmic poetry that this literary genre contains.We should not see rhythmic poetry in isolation as the part of only music but rhythmic poetry should also approach to literary readers who are more into reading texts.
Rhythmic Poetry and its Technical Aspects
Each and every poetry genre has its own technical aspects and like these genres, rhythmic poetry is also 90% analyzed on the basis of its technical features like poetic devices, use of linguistic features.With rhythmic poetry, like Phonetics, semantics, type of rhyme structures are used to compose a rhythmic poetry or rhythm and poetry and in last, this paper would also focus on the subtle effect of globalization on rhythmic poetry.
Rhythmic poetry and Placement of Poetic Devices
The very first technical aspect of rhythmic poetry or in more simpler words we can say the technical features that combine rhythm and poetry together is the knowledge of poetic devices and selection of words (the concept of selection of words came from the Russian formalists or formalism), obviously when we add rhythm with poetry then it is mandatory to select those words which will create consistency in rhythm and it is also mandatory to select the words on the basis of theme that we have selected or a rhythmic poet must have the skills of changing themes in a single verse but the words should be selected as per themes.
For example: -If someone is using women empowerment as their theme for rhythmic poetry and in first stanza, the poet is talking about the stereotypes of society for women and in the next stanza which consists of four lines theme shifts from stereotypes to acid attacks then the words and meaning should be selected as per that theme, we cannot change the concept of the stanza but we can change the theme in next stanza which consists of four lines, which also shows the complexity of rhythmic poetry.We can talk about various themes but it should go with the title of poetry (Note:- there is a difference between themes and the title or concept of the text ). Let us understand with another example.
If we use the concepts of women empowerment.
“women face stereotypes, line1
Line2In this society their works never got hyped, when she writes,
Stereotypes strikes she is not into freedom every time” Line 4
So, these are some lines of rhythmic poetry in the first stanza.With the rhyming pattern a, a, a, a, it is reason for selecting this rhyming structure is to make consistency in the rhythm and the theme of this stanza is stereotypes that a woman faces.
Now I will shift to the next stanza.
Line1 “if she chooses carrier over cupid,
Then salary for her is an attack of acid, line 2
People do nothing they think she will be cured by magic, line 3
For crime acid is free for profit.” Line 4
As we can see in the next stanza, the theme of the poetry has changed from stereotypes to acid attack and these four lines also have different rhyming patterns i.e. b, b, b, b. The reason for selecting same rhyme pattern in the first stanza and the second stanza is to make consistency of rhythm in the poetry. Note (using same rhyming pattern in the poetry is a method to be consistent in the rhythm but we can change the rhyming scheme it is not a fixed rule to use same rhyming pattern for every stanza but for rhythmic poetry, preferably it is a, a, a, a and b, b, b, b).
The main concept that we have to know is the choice of words that will help in making rhythm. Assume, if I choose difficult words and long sentences instead of short words and short sentences then it is obvious that the poet will not be able to make rhythm and readers will also find difficulty to understand the words.Rhythmic poetry should be written on the basis of the understanding of readers and listeners. So, this was the very first step to under-stand the basic technical feature.
Now what enhances the rhythmic poetry more and the answer is poetic devices like methophors,simile,alliteration and symbolism as well, these poetic devices make rhythmic poetry deeper and more intenseand out of the above-mentioned poetic devices, metaphor is mostly used in rhythmic poetry.In the introductory section, I have mentioned about the aggressive type rhythmic poetry where poet shows aggression and frustration, in these types of poetry metaphor acts as its soul. In a metaphor, a word or an expression that in literal usage denotes one kind of thing is applied to a distinctly different kind of thing, without asserting a comparison. (M.H. Abrahams a glossary of literary terms)
In Rhythmic poetry, especially aggressive type, the poet replaces himself/herself with various strong figures like in the above examples, I have written some lines in protest rhythmic poetry genre where I have written that the salary of women for rejecting love is acid attack, now I have used two poetic devices their 1. cupid which symbolizes love 2. Salary as acid attack so 1st one can be metaphor but it is symbolism first and if we talk about 2nd one then it will be a methophor. This is how we use poetic devices in the rhythmic poetry. This was the second technical feature to compose a rhythmic poetry now what makes rhythmic poetry different is that we have to select poetic device first and according to that we have to create our stanza and we can use unlimited references in rhythmic poetry note (because of using references every stanza of a rhythmic poetry contains poetic device).
In the above two sections, we have learned two technical features of rhythmic poetry, 1. Choice of words, 2. Use of poetic devices but this is not the end, the main and most consequential technical feature of rhythmic poetry combines with linguistic elements like phonetics and semantics. In this section, I will discuss that how rules of phonetics are applied with rhythmic Poetry. (*phonetics is a mandatory concept in rhythmic poetry one cannot ignore phonetic theory while writing rhythmic poetry *). While making rhythm in the poetry, poet always tries to choose those rhymes which are most appropriate, what kind of rhythm should be selected, breaking of syllable, accent and pronunciation. Before covering these concepts, it is important to understand what is phonetics and how it is used in rhythmic poetry.
Phonetics with Rhythmic Poetry
Phonetics is the study of speech sounds, these speech sounds contain (vowel sounds, consonants) and understanding phonetics will help a rhythmic poet to choose more appropriate words in the rhyming structure, for example, let us take the word cupid, now there are many words that can be easily rhymed with cupid like acid, magic but we have to choose those words which are more appropriate and will help in making smooth rhythm , so the mostappropriate words go with cupid are stupid and lucid,these words are phonetically correct words and will help in making smooth rhythm, this is the basic concept applied while making rhyming structure in the rhythmic poetry . The choice of phonetically correct words is not the only criteriafor composing a rhythmic poetry as I have mentioned in my introductory part that rhythmic poetry is delivered orally so a rhythmic poem has to keep an eye on the accent and appropriate pronunciation and to understand the relation between phonetics and rhythmic poetry it is also important to understand how pronunciation is used to compose a perfect rhyming pattern. For example, let us take a word comb,when we analyze the comb in terms of pronunciation then the letter “b” is silent if we use comb in a verse then we cannot select words like block or talk rhyming with comb, the most appropriate words go with comb are tom, bomb and dome this is how pronunciation works in the formation of rhythmic poetry.
The concept of accent is slightly different from the concept of pronunciation. Word accent is the relative degree of prominence with which the different syllables of a word are pronounced. In this sense, monosyllabic words said in isolation (not in connected speech) can be said to have ‘no accent’. That is why accent on monosyllabic words is not marked in dictionary. (A course in phonetics and spoken English J. Sethi and P.V. Dhamija). In simpler words we can also say that word accent is the way to speak different syllables. To understandthe concept of accent it is important to know how to break a syllable.
It is well- known that different countries have different approach to languages. English spoken in America is totally different from English spoken in England and this scenario is same in the case of India and any other country as well. Now the question is how word accent has a major effect on rhythmic poetry? To answer this question, we have to understand various examples.Let us take a word car, Americans pronounce car with the last consonant ‘R’ and on the other hand, Britishers pronounce car by eliminating the consonant ‘R’ they end car with vowel ‘a’. If a poet is using a word “car” in rhythmic poetry with an American accent then the word placed in rhyme with car should be park,calf and if the poet is using word car in rhythmic poetry with a British accent then the words placed in the rhyme with car should be scar and tar with R silent from this, we can conclude that a change in accent can change the rhyming pattern.
The last and one of the most important features of a rhythmic poetry is the use of phonetic transcription but before coming on phonetic transcription we have to understand what is International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). In English, there is no one to one correspondence between spelling and sound and like English many languages have a problem of sound and spelling for example cat as we can see that the spelling of the word is starting from c but when we pronounce it the sound initiates from the letter “k” so there is a problem of difference between spelling and sound in languages. To overcome thisproblem, a need was felt to evolve an alphabet, which is used very extensively by phoneticians all over the world, is the International Phonetic Alphabet devised by International Phonetic Association. It has claimed to have symbols to represent all the sounds that exist in the language of the word, it can therefore be used to transcribe words of any language,i.e to write them down more or less as one pronounces them. The IPA can be used to represent in writing the sounds, words, phrases, and sentence of any language of the world. Such representation is called phonetic transcription (A course in Phonetics and spoken English J. Sethi P.V. Dhamija). There are several ways in which we can apply the concept of phonetic transcription in rhythmic poetry.
Sometimes a rhythmic poet uses large number of syllables in the poetry, let’s take enthusiasm as an example, enthusiasm has many syllables, it is difficult to select a word which is rhyming with enthusiasm so the poet will try to select the words like symptom, sarcasm and maxim.
How to choose more appropriate words with the help of phonetic transcription? For selecting the most appropriate word rhyming first step is to transcribe enthusiasm(/ɪnˈθjuːzɪaz(ə)m) and the next step is to transcribe those words which we have to select as our rhyming structure.
Symptom Sarcasm maxim
Transcription: – /ˈsɪm(p)təm / /ˈsɑːkaz(ə)m/ /ˈmaksɪm/
The most appropriate word with enthusiasm is sarcasm because the last three symbols of sarcasm and enthusiasm(z(ə)m) are same, so the poet will select that meter to complete the first stanza consisting of four lines (we can take symptom and maxim as well but when we are talking about rhythmic poetry,we have to select rhyming words which are close to each other).
Phonetic transcription is not only used to select the rhyming words but many rhythmic poets apply Phonetic transcription for different purposes.Sometimes, a rhythmic poet wants to enhance his/her poetry so they like to rhyme the sound of vowel and consonant as well, so they use the symbol of phonetic transcription to rectify vowel and consonant sounds.For example,if a poet decides to select a word “cat” to enhance the poetry poet has to select that rhyming word which will have the same consonant sound as cat and the same vowel sound as cat, the most appropriate word the poet has to select will be cap and scam and to be clearer with the selection, it will be fine to transcribe the words to rectify that the rhymes selected are correct or not. Process of rectification of vowel and consonants sounds with the help of phonetic transcription are as follows.
Words: – cat (main word ) cap scam
transcription: – |kæt| |kæp| |skæm|
From here we come to a conclusion that we can use cap and scam as the rhyming words with cat as we can see that after transcription the sound of vowel and consonant of all the words are placed in the same position, vowel and consonant sounds are also matched in all the words. so, these are the steps or method applied to rhyme vowel sound with vowel sound and consonant sound with consonant sound.
Rhythmic poetry is a very complex genre of poetry because of its complexity there are some more complex technical features.From the above analysis of rhythmic poetry, we come to know that how we can apply the rules of phonetics in rhythmic poetry. we have also found that the rhythmic poetry is not completed just by making rhyme scheme, to combine rhythm with poetry it is important to select those words which are phonetically correct, in simpler words we can say it is mandatory to phonetically rhyme the words to make consistency in the rhythm, with correct pronunciation with the understanding of accent and last step is to rectify rhymes with the help of phonetic transcription. With the help of the phonetic transcription, we can understand vowel sounds and consonants sounds more clearly while making rhyming structure.
Semantics with Rhythmic Poetry
Under this section I will discuss that how rhythmic poetry is connected with semantics in the above section, I have mentioned that rhythmic poetry is connected with some of the features of linguistics and semantics is one of them. Under this section following points has to be covered.
1. Utterance in rhythmic poetry
2. Sentence meaning and speaker meaning
3. Analysis of sentence used in rhythmic poetry
To find the connection between semantics and rhythmic poetry, we have to understand what is semantics. Semantics is the study of meaning and language, to write any piece of art like rhythmic poetry, sonnet, essays, novel etc we have to select a theme and a concept which makes sense. When we initiate the work on rhythmic poetry then the very first step is to select an appropriate theme and the next step is to select an appropriate language that is meaningful and the process of analyzing the language of a rhythmic poetry is called semantics. There are two ways to apply the concept of semantics in rhythmic poetry 1. Semantics is used to analyze the language used in rhythmic poetry 2. To choose most appropriate word to make the context more meaningful.
Now I will explain both the functions of semantics with examples let us take nature as the theme of rhythmic poetry.
So, I would like to start stanza like: – nature has the power to heel,
It doesn’t provide artificial feel,
it is important to use natural things,
if you want healthy life to keep
According to the rules of rhythmic poetry, we have selected appropriate rhyme but there is a problem with language, in the second line I have selected the word “artificial feel” it doesn’t make any sense and if we focus on the last line “if you want healthy life to keep” have some grammatical mistakes. So, this is the first function of semantics to analyze the grammatical mistakes and to rectify that the words we have taken in poetry make any sense or not.After analyzing the grammatical errors, the next step is to eliminate those errors and place those words and sentences which makes sense. The process of eliminating words and using only those words which make sense are called remainders in semanticssometimes we use wrong referring expressions in the poetry and with process of finding remainders we can reduce the chances of these mistakes.
Examples: – nature has the power to heel,
It doesn’t provide artificial feel,
it is important to use natural things,
if you want healthy life to keep
This stanza has two mistakes: 1. In the second line,the referring expression artificial feel is not appropriate as this word doesn’t make any sense so it will be eliminated and a new word “humanmade feel” will be added with the remainder (“it doesn’t provide”)so the first two-line changes to “nature has the power to heel
It doesn’t provide humanmade feel”
The word humanmade feel is clearer and making sense with the context so from here we can conclude two things 1. We cannot add the word feel with artificial and 2. Humanmade feel and artificial feel have same meaning but humanmade feel is more appropriate and that words have an appropriate meaning and this same process is also followed in the last two lines to make it grammatically correct. Semantics concepts make rhythmic poetry more enhanced.
Sometimes rhythmic poets use double entendre in their rhythmic poetry. Semantics concept of speaker meaning and sentence meaning are used to analyze the double entendre lines used in rhythmic poetry. For example,I want to drink poison like Mahadeva,if we simply analyze this line then one would say it is a comparison but when we apply the concept of sentence meaning and the speaker meaning then it is a double entendre as per the sentence and speaker meaning I want to drink poison like Mahadeva have many interpretations, for a writer it can be the theme of eliminating all the negativity from the society and for a reader it can be the symbol of a strong personality or it can be a way to speak against societal tendency that don’t die by drinking poison of negativity drink it and keep in your mind to fight back. So, we can prepare the list of interpretations. In simpler words, the concept of sentence meaning and speaker meaning is used to find interpretation out of double entendre lines.
Effects of Globalization on Rhythmic Poetry
Under this section, I will discuss about the effect of globalization on rhythmic poetry for the further conclusion it is important to understand what globalization is. Globalization means
“The speedup of movements and exchanges (of human, beings, goods, and services, capital, technologies or culture practices) all over the planet”. One of the effects of globalization is that it promotes and increase interactions between different region and population around the globe (you matter.com). This interaction includes many things like interaction of culture and interaction of economic exchanges as our primary concern is rhythmic poetry so we have to focus on cultural exchanges, cultural exchange includes language exchanges which directly effects the rhythmic poetry. Globalization has made rhythm and poetry more multilingual and more enhanced many rhythmic poets in modern times use more than two languages in their verses it is because of the language interaction established because of the globalization for example
“I love to drink cola,
And love to say hello in my style that is hola”
In the first line, I have used the word cola and to complete the rhyme a Spanish word is used i.e., hola (means hello) there are different ways of using different languages in rhythmic poetry. Many rhythmic poets write one sentence in different language and another sentence in different language instead of just rhyming words in different languages for example: –
“Vive la France”
My country will rise just give it one chance”
Now, in these two lines we can see the transformation of language from French to English from here we can conclude that globalization has made rhythmic poetry multilingual (mostly the language combination of Hindi and English are used in modern times).
Types of Rhythmic Poetry and how Rhythm is made
After learning how to use poetic devices, how to apply the concept of phonetics, how to apply the concept of semantics, how to select rhyming schemes and understanding its relation with globalization now it is time to elaborate the last and major concepts of rhythmic poetry i.e., their types and how to make rhythm with the help of different types of rhyming structure.
There are majorly four types of rhythmic poetry 1. Storytelling, 2. Protest poetry, 3. lo-fi poetry and 4. Aggressive type (*Rap, rhythmic poetry or rhythm and poetry are same there is no difference between them).
1. Story telling: – Story telling is one of the most difficult tasks for any rhythmic poet.for composing story telling type of rhythmic poetry, it is important to have good narrating techniques and skills of selecting those words which will construct a narrative background. In story telling poets have to narrate story in the form of rhythmic poetry in story telling a rhythmic poet can use stream of conscious.
2. Lo-fi poetry: – This type of rhythmic poetry is calm, soothing written in some one’s memory. It can be a form of elegy.
3. Protest poetry: – As the name suggests protest poetry is written to oppose something or raise the voice. For example, raising voice against racism.
4. Aggressive type rhythmic poetry: – This poetry is based on metaphors. Aggressive rhythmic poetry is used to show aggression and rage and lots of comparison are used to depict the strong personality.
How to make Rhythm with Rhyming Structures
There are many types of rhythmic poet many poets choose slow deliverance in their rhythm and many poets choose fast deliverance in their rhythm and many poets needs complexity in their rhythm. Speed and rhythm always depend upon the type of rhyming structure a poet use.
There are preferably four types of rhyming structures 1. single syllabic rhyming 2. double syllabic rhyming 3. closed rhyming and 4. Hollow rhyming.
1. Single syllabic rhyming: – single syllabic rhyming refers to that rhyming structure in which single syllables are rhymed. In rhythmic poetry single rhyming is one of the basic patterns. Single syllabic rhyming’s are used in making slow and steady rhythm for example my “life is boring,
I am nothing exploring,
Just assuming, and always snoring
The words highlighted above are the examples of single syllabic rhymes when we make a flow of rhythm then it will slow and steady and if a poet tries to make fast flow of rhythm then some of words will fumble.
2. Double syllabic rhyming: -Double syllabic rhyming refers to those rhyming structure in which two syllables are rhymed. For example: –
If you are a true man,
Girls are not maids it is proven,
She has a right to be a student”
The highlighted words are the double syllabic rhymes preferably rhythmic poets use double syllabic rhymes and single syllabic rhymes to make very slow rhythm so that they would easily pronouns the last rhyming with the stress. Double syllabic rhymes also help a rhythmic poet to write long sentences in the verse.
3. Close rhyming’s: – Close rhymes are used to make rhythm fast, there is a different method to compose verse with closed rhymes. Closed rhymes always give advantage of making fast rhythm flow.
For example: – when I was in New York,
My clock, always chocked, clothes were old, phones were locked
The highlighted words are the close rhymes when we make a flow of rhythm then it will be fast and it will be easy to fluctuate from one rhythmic flow to another rhythmic flow. Close rhymes are also called internal rhyming’s.
4. Hollow rhyming: – Hollow rhyming is one of the most complex forms of rhyming structure. In hollow rhyming, each and every word used in first sentence will rhyme with each and every word of another sentence.
for example: – “my eyes are like eight x scope,
I understand all the liesand scar you decide to give me gave new hopes
This how hollow rhyme is used to structure a complex flow these types of rhyming structures are always performed by the experienced rhythmic poets.
Rhythmic Poetry with Literary Theories
This topic is my own addition to rhythmic poetry if we are connecting various literature technique with rhythmic poetry then we cannot leave this section in isolation.
Rhythmic poetry with structuralism: – we can connect rhythmic poetry with structuralism in two ways first we cannot isolate rhythmic poetry with music it should be the part of literature as well because of its technical feature. Another way to connect structuralism with rhythmic poetry is not to analyze only themes it is important to analyze all the structures like language, rhyming patterns and concepts of Phonetics but the structures should be scientific not philosophical. For example, if a poet is composing rhythmic poetry on child labour then theme is not only the important part we have to find many structures like devices, language, is selection of words are relatable with theme or not.
Rhythmic poetry with feminism, post colonialism and Marxism: – We can cover these theories in protest poetry because protest poetry is always composed raise against various political norms. For example, if someone is composing protest poetry that women are strongest then they are reflecting radical feminism and if a rhythmic poetry composed by women then it will become a gynotexts. If someone composes protest poetry to eliminate Eurocentric norms and view them it becomes orientalism with rhythmic poetry. If someone is raising question from cultural norms in protest rhythmic poetry then it becomes the ideology of Marxism.
From this research work we can draw out following conclusions:
That we cannot keep rhythmic poetry in isolation with music as it contains various literary norms so it should be considered as the part of literature. For constructing rhythm, it is important to select words which are phonetically correct and a rhythmic poet can use the functions of semantics to eliminate grammatical mistakes and a reader can also use speaker meaning and sentence meaning to find many interpretations. In modern world many artists compose rhythm and poetry in more than one language that complexity in rhythmic poetry is attained through globalization. At last, it is important to understand types of rhyming structure to make rhythm faster and slower.Rhythmic poetry should be given a place in literature because of its theoretical complexity and literary functions.
Abrams M.H., Harpham Galt Geoffrey: A glossary of literary terms eleventh edition 1957, ISBN- 13:978-81-315-2635-4
Dhamija P.V., Sethi J: A course in Phonetics and Spoken English second edition 1989, ISBN- 978-81-203-1495-5
https://youmatter.world/en/definition/:- Globalization definition